It is presently unclear why there is a high prevalence of periodontal disease (PD) in individuals living with chronic kidney disease (CKD). By employing three different models in rats and mice, we demonstrate that experimental uremia causes periodontal bone loss. Uremia alters the biochemical composition of saliva and induces progressive dysbiosis of the oral microbiota, with microbial samples from uremic animals displaying reduced overall bacterial growth, increased alpha diversity, reduced abundance of key components of the healthy oral microbiota such as Streptococcus and Rothia, and an increase in minor taxa including those from gram-negative phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. We show that transfer of oral microbiota from uremic mice induces PD in germ-free animals, whilst co-housing with healthy animals ameliorates the PD phenotype in rats. Thus, we advocate that periodontal disease should be regarded as a bacterially mediated complication of chronic uremia.